Bekanntschaften sankt augustin

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Pteropods or sea snails, also called sea angels, produce chemical deterrents to ward off predators, and some species of amphipods take advantage of this by carrying pteropods piggyback to gain protection from their voracious predators. There is no recognisable benefit for the pteropod. On the contrary they starve: Biologists working with Dr Charlotte Havermans at the Alfred Wegener Institute have investigated this phenomenon as part of a cooperation project with the University of Bremen.

Original publication

Pteropods or sea snails, also called sea angels, produce chemical deterrents to ward off predators, and some species of amphipods take advantage of this by carrying pteropods piggyback to gain protection from their voracious predators. There is no recognisable benefit for the pteropod. On the contrary they starve: Biologists working with Dr Charlotte Havermans at the Alfred Wegener Institute have investigated this phenomenon as part of a cooperation project with the University of Bremen.

In an article in the journal Marine Biodiversity, they talk about kidnapping and explain the potential advantages of this association for both the host and its passenger.

Amphipods bekanntschaften sankt augustin the suborder Hyperiidea are popular prey for fish and sea birds. During a Polarstern expedition that took place in the austral summer from to Februaryshe made an extraordinary discovery: Bekanntschaften sankt augustin literature search revealed that US researchers had already described this behaviour back in — although only for the high-Antarctic coastal waters and not for the open Southern Ocean where the ship was single mann 48. In the coastal areas of the McMurdo Sound, most of the amphipods studied carried bekanntschaften sankt augustin pteropod rucksack.

Subsequent genetic and morphological investigations provided new insights. Previously, such tandems were completely unknown for the open, ice-free waters of Southern Ocean, and now the biologists have discovered this behaviour in two species: Our sample size was too small to say without doubt whether these are species-specific pairs, where only a certain amphipod carries a certain pteropod species.

Behavioural observations of the free-living pteropods show that cod icefishes and other predators are deterred by bekanntschaften sankt augustin chemicals the gastropods produce. Icefishes quickly learn that amphipods with rucksacks are not tasteful and bekanntschaften sankt augustin avoid those with a bekanntschaften sankt augustin on their back. Because the conditions in the open Southern Ocean are different to those in coastal ecosystems, several open questions remain: It is also still unclear to which extent the pteropod benefits from saving energy by being carried neue bekanntschaft was schreiben its bekanntschaften sankt augustin.

The researchers observed that the amphipod uses two pairs of legs to keep the gastropod on their back so that they are completely unable to actively hunt for suitable food where it is available. The biggest lesson the authors draw from their discovery: A survival pack for escaping predation in the open ocean: Amphipod — pteropod associations in the Southern Bekanntschaften sankt augustin, Marine Biodiversity The Alfred Wegener Institute pursues research in the polar regions and the oceans of mid and high latitudes.

As one of the 18 centres of the Helmholtz Association it coordinates polar research in Germany and provides ships like the research icebreaker Polarstern and stations for the international scientific community. New Study Kidnapping in the Antarctic animal world? A puzzling relationship between amphipods and pteropods. Sampling with the Bongo net Photo: Downloads [Translate to English: The Bongo net samples pelagic organisms. Pteropod Clione limacina antarctica jpg 3 MB.

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